Thursday, 29 June 2017

Difference between Butter and Margarine

A solid fat substance made by churning cream in special conditions of temperature. The cream must first be separated from the milk, then it is pasteurized, that is heated to a high enough temperature to destroy enzymes and bacteria, then rapidly cooled before churning begins. 'Churning' involves rapidly agitating the cream until the fat it contains forms a solid mass that can be gathered, washed and shaped to make butter. The remaining liquid (buttermilk) can be drained off and used separately.

The composition of a butter must be at least 78% milk fat, 20% other milk solids (whey) and not more than 16% water. Countries that produce butter have national schemes of quality control. Butter may also contain salt and lactic acids cultures. If kept cold, butter remains a solid fat, but softens when warmed and melts when heated. Although most butter is made from cows' milk, it can also be made from the milk of goats, sheep, yak and water buffalo.

There are two main types of butter: sweet cream butter and lactic butter. Sweet cream butter is left to age for 12 hours after the initial heating and before churning. To make lactic butter, the cream is heated again after the initial heating, to allow lactic bacteria to develop; this produces diactyl, a flavouring substance. After ripening, the cream is then churned. Most continental butters are lactic butters, traditionally made in Denmark and Holland.

Butter is available salted, slightly salted or unsalted. Salt was originally added to butter as a preservative, especially if it had to travel a long distance, such as the butter from New Zealand, but salt is now also used as flavouring. Butter is labeled as salted when it contains 11/ –2% salt. Most butter-producing countries produce both 2 salted and unsalted butters. Unsalted butter is a paler yellow than salted butter, almost cream-coloured.

Butter is perishable and therefore needs to be stored in the refrigerator, where it will keep for 2 – 3 weeks. It can also be frozen. Being an animal fat, a high consumption of butter is not nowadays recommended as part of a healthy diet as it is a saturated fat which is thought to contribute to cholesterol levels and therefore to heart disease. It is also very high in calories, but does contain vitamins A and D and calcium. There are many supposedly healthier butter substitutes on the market these days. Some of these are made by mixing animal fat with vegetable fat, while others have quantities of water whipped into them. Some are designed to look and taste like butter, others are
nothing like it.


Despite its unhealthy reputation, butter is used for countless tasks in the kitchen. Nothing can replace it for flavour and richness in cakes, pastry, biscuits and sauces. Butter is also use for frying, especially to achieve a browned effect, and soups. It is also used in the form of beurre mane to thicken and enrich stews towards the end of cooking.

A knob of butter makes all the difference to a dish of hot vegetables, and some vegetables, such as asparagus and corn on the cob, are served with melted butter. Butter is also added to creamed potatoes, and baked jacket potatoes are served split and topped with a knob of butter. Flavoured butter are also popular and can easily made by mixing the chosen herb, garlic or other flavouring into softened butter. After chilling, herb butters can be sliced and used to top hot steaks, fish or vegetables. Other flavouring to mix with butter include ground nuts, anchovies,
mustard, chives and watercress.

Apart from its many uses in cooking butter is popular for spreading on bread, scones, hot toast toasted teacakes and crumpets.


The purpose of clarifying butter is to separate the pure butter from the water, salt and other milk solids contained in the butter. Pure butter can be heated to a much higher temperature without burning so is more suitable for frying clarified butter is also used in Genoese sponge and other cake mixtures. To clarify butter, simply heat it to boiling, then leave it to stand until the sediment has settled to the bottom of the pan. The pure butter can then be strained off.


A yellow fat that first became popular as an economical substitutes for butter. Nowadays, however,
margarine is used instead of butter in most cases because it is made from vegetable oils, which contain polyunsaturated fat rather than saturated animal fats. Margarine first came into use in France in the late 19th Century. The original margarines were made from skimmed milk; today they are mostly based on vegetable oils, which have undergone a process known as hydrogenation, which hardens them. Unfortunately, the hydrogenation process transforms polyunsaturated fats
into saturated fats, so even vegetable based margarines contain a proportion of saturated fats; in general, the harder the margarine at room temperature, the more saturated fat it contains. Most vegetable margarines are still soft enough, however, to be spreadable and many are sold in plastic tubs rather than wrapped in foil.

By law, a margarine must contain 80% fat and no more than 16% water, the same proportions as in butter. Other ingredients may include salt and various preservatives, flavourings and colourings. Margarines must also contain vitamins A and D. The most frequently used vegetable oils are sunflower, soya and corn oil; some margarines are made from a blend of oils. Margarines can be used in most of the ways in which butter is used, but the taste is never the same. Soft margarines are excellent for making one-stage sponge cakes and can be used in other types of baking as well. They
are also suitable for frying and, of course, for spreading on bread, toast, etc. Margarines should be distinguished from low-fat spreads, which are excellent for reducing calories and cholesterol, but which contain high proportions of water and are not suitable for cooking.

Tuesday, 27 June 2017

The Angel of Dehradun rocked on The Miss World Bodybuilding championship

The Angel of Dehradun, Bhumika Sharma is an inspiration for all Indian women who thinks that, they are physically weak. Her story proves that women are empowering themselves like never before. Bhumika had initially taken to shooting and wanted to grow in that profession. But eventually, she opted for bodybuilding after a chance meeting with an inspiring coach (Bhupendra Sharma). Bhumika rigorously works out for seven hours a day.

This strong lady owes her strength to her mother, Hansa Manral Sharma, who was the head coach of Indian Women’s Weightlifting team and awarded by “Dronacharya Aword” by Hon,ble Ex President of India K.R. Narayanan.

She gained the most number of points in body posing, individual posing and fall category and became first Indian woman to win the World Bodybuilding Championship held in Venice.


Cheese is a solid derivative of milk. It is produced by coagulating the protein (CAESIN)
in milk so that it forms curds - usually by adding RENNET (outer agent used to seperate the
milk protein) - and draining off the liquid (WHEY). Cheese then undergoes a ripening
process, during which it changes in taste, texture and appearance and each variety takes on
its own particular characteristics. Some cheeses develop veining during ripening, while
other form holes or 'EYES'. Veining is caused by a bacteria in the cheese, which may occur
naturally, or may be introduced. All cheeses develop a rind or crust of some sort, or are
given one artificially such as red wax rind of EDAM. Some cheeses, such as BRIE &
CAMEMBERT, develop a mould on the outside surface which produces enzymes which help
ripen the cheese from outside towards the center.
Most cheese is made from 'EWES' milk with a small amount made from 'COWS' or
`GOATS' milk. The type of milk and the different techniques used to seperate the curds and
whey and ripen the cheese result in the many different types of cheese. Climate, vegetation
and seasonal changes can also influence the finished cheese, which means that some
varieties can only be produced in a certain area and cannot br produced in large quantities
or under factory conditions. CHEDDAR, however lends itself well to factory techniques.
Although CAESIN makes up 78% of the milk protein, there are other proteins present
in smaller quantities, but they are soluble and are drained out with the WHEY. The whey may
be then processed to curdle the remaining protein and used to make low fat cheese such as
RICOTTA - a moist, unsalted Italian cheese.

Types of Cheese

1. Semi Hard & Hard Cheese :- A semi hard cheese is produced by removing as
much of the whey as possible from curd, often by mechanical pressing, before moulding and
ripening. Hard cheeses undergo a further process which involves heating the curd so that it
shrinks and hardens, making it possible to extract even more of the whey. These cheeses
are left to mature much longer than the softer cheeses. Semi hard cheeses include Cheddar
and Edam, while the most familiar hard cheeses are Parmesan and Pecorino.

2. Fresh & Soft Cheese:- A true soft cheese is made by coagulating unpasteurized
milk with rennet. The addition of a starter just before rennet is added ensures a
clean acid flavour. The majority of soft cheeses, such as Camembert, are foreign in origin.
Today many soft cheeses are made from
skimmed milk, which means they are lower in calories & fat. Varieties of soft cheese are
defined and labelled according to the amount of milk fat and water they contain. Skimmed
milk soft cheese must by law contain less than 2% milk fat and not more than 80% water.
They are generally low in calories, soft and smooth with a bland or slightly acid taste.
Example include Fromage Frais.
Those labelled as low fat soft cheese have 2 -
10% milk fat and upto 80% water. Textures may vary from smooth and yogurt - like lumpy
textured cottage cheese.
Medium fat soft cheese must contain 10 - 20%
milk fat and not more than 70% water. It is white with a smooth but slightly granular texture
& lightly acid flavour.
Full fat soft cheeses are often called creamy and
are frequently confused with the higher fat cream cheeses. Full fat means they must contain
at least 20% milk fat and not more than 60% water.
The higher fat cream cheeses are often reffered
to as double cream cheese. One example is Caboc.

3. Cream Cheese:- It can be classified as a soft cheese. Its manufacture is very
similar to that described above, but is made from cream rather milk. A typical cream cheese
is a soft bodied unripened cheese with a rich, full and mildly acid flavour. It has a rather
granular texture, buttery consistency and a high content of milk fat which gives it a creamy
appearance. It is usually moulded into small cylindrical, square, rectangular or round
shapes of varying sizes. There are Two recognized varieties of cream cheese - Single &
Double Cream Cheese.
Single cream cheese is made from single cream with an
optimum fat content of 20 - 25%. About 1.2 ltrs. of this cream will yield about 6 cheese
weighing 100 - 125gms. each. Carefully prepared it will keep for a week in a refrigerator,
after which it deteriorates quickly both in flavour and appearance.
Double cream cheese is produced from cream containing
about 50 - 55% butter fat. Usually 1.2 ltrs. of this cream will yield 8 double cream cheeses
weighing 100 - 125 gms. each. This cheese dose not keep quite long as single cream cheese

4. Acid Curd Cheese:- This cheese is frequently classed as a soft cheese, but
is fundamentally different. The curd are formed slowly by the action of lactic acid upon the
caesin. Acid curdling is completely different action from rennet coagulation and by yields of
high acidity, quick drainage properties & somewhat granular texture. The cheese has a
clean, acid flavour, and a slightly granular soft, spreadable flavour. It has a short shelflife &
must be eaten in a fresh state.
Cottage cheese is an Acid Curd Cheese, but is made
from pasteurized, skimmed milk. The curd is cut into small cubes & slowly heated to develop
the right body and texture. The whey is drained off, & the curd washed several times &
cooled. The washing of curd produces the familiar lumpy appearance of cottage cheese. Salt
& single cream are then added & the cheese is packaged in cartoons. The additions of the
cream give the cottage cheese a final fat content of 4%. This, combined with the high
moisture content, gives the cheese its soft velvetty texture. Cottage cheese has poor keeping
qualities and should be eaten while fresh.

5. Low Fat Cheese:- This cheeses, such as Cheddar and Cheshire, have
been produced in response to the needs of people who want to reduce the amount of fat in
their diet. They are made in similar way to traditional hard cheeses but with half their fat
content and a consequent reduction in calories. Low Fat Cheeses tend to be mild flavoured.
For use in cooking where a stronger flavour is required either add a pinch of mustard or keep
the cheese in the refrigeratorfor 2 - 3 weeks to allow the flavour to mature and develop.

6. Processed Cheese:- This is made by combining cheese with a number of
other ingredients, such as flavourings and cream, and melting it down. A processed cheese
contains at least 50% dry matter and 40% fat. A cheese spread contains less dry matter.
Processed cheese are sold in portions wrapped in foil, often shaped in triangles cubes and

very thin slices. They can be used to make sandwiches, in hamburgers or in appetizers.

Storing Cheese

Store cheese in a covered, ventilated china dish or in a bowl with a plate on top, or
wrap in foil and store in the refrigerator. Keep it in the door, dairy compartment or bottom of
the refrigerator so that it does not get too cold. Leave cheese at room temperature, still in its
paper or other wrappings to prevent drying out, for about 30 minutes before serving.
If you want cheese to become hard and dry for grating, leave it exposed to the air in a
cool, dry place for a couple of days, turning it from time to time. Grated cheese can be stored
in a polythene bag in the refrigerator for several weeks.
Cheese can be frozen, though some varieties freeze better than others, specially the
higher fat varieties. Once thawed, all cheese should be eaten as soon as possible as it

deteriorates quickly.
Serving Cheese

Cheese may be served at the end of a meal or it may from the main course for a light
lunch. When planning a cheese board, serve some of the following accompaniments with it:

1. Biscuits which may be savoury or salty, plain or semi-sweet. Rolls or bread
(French, Granary style, Wholemeal or Rye), cut into chunks and put into a
seperate bowls or baskets. Fruit bread is also delicious with cheese.

2. Butter, margarine which is low in saturate fats or a low fat spread.

3. Salad vegetables such as lettuce, celery, chicory, tomato wedges, small whole
radishes, watercress, carrot sticks and spring onions.

4. Fresh fruit such as apples or grapes.
Cheese and wine have a natural affinity : they can be served together for informal
parties, lunches or dinner parties. For a dinner party, the cheese can either be served French
style, between the main course and the dessert (in which case it eaten with wine served with
the main course) or at the end of a meal. As a general rule, for serving wine with cheese
serve richer cheeses with full bodied wines and lighter, creamier cheeses with lighter red or
white wine.

Cooking with Cheese:- Cheese goes well with many other ingredients viz, eggs and
pasta, and is a flavouring for many sauces and toppings. When cooking cheese, remember
that too fierce a heat can make it stringy. When added to a sauce, it should not be allowed to
boil. Hard cheese can be grated for cooking, but softer cheese are best sliced, shredded or
crumbled before adding to a dish.

Well matured cheese gives the best flavour; if using a mild
Cheddar, add a little mustard for extra flavour if wished - adding an extra quantity of a mild
cheese will not give a better depth of flavour. Cheddar is good in baking; use Lancashire,
Cheshire or Leicester for toasting; Mozzarella for pizzas, while crumbly cheeses such as Feta

or Roquefort are best for mixing into salads and dressings.

Country wise Famous Cheese

British Cheese
1. Cheddar -
Is the most well known and famous English cheese now initiated and produced in many
other countries. It is a hard cheese with a closed texture and varies in colour from pale straw
to golden orange. It has a full nutty flavour. A traditional cheese served with Ploughman's

2. Cheshire -
The oldest British cheese has a slightly crumbly texture & a mellow, slightly salty flavour. It
is available white or orange. It provides a good topping for grilling.

3. Blue Cheshire -
Is a deep golden coloured cheese kept under special conditions to allow blue veining to
develop. It has rich creamy, strong tangy flavour and good in cheeseboard.

4. Double Gloucester -
Is a hard cheese with a firm smooth texture. It is a golden orange colour & has a delicate
creamy flavour. It is ideal for cooking & eating.

5. Cotswold with Chive -
Is a double Gloucester cheese with the addition of chopped chives, which give it a distinctive
flavour. Good for the cheeseboard.

6. Sherwood with Pickle-
Is a double Gloucester cheese with the addition of pickle. Good for cheeseboard.

7. Leicester -
Is a rich russet coloured cheese with a mild mellow flavour and open textures. It is good for
cooking particularly in Welsh Rabbit.

8. Lancashire -
It is a white, soft textured crumbly cheese with a mild flavour. Good in soups and casserole.

9. Caerphilly -
Is a moist white cheese with a mild, slightly salty flavour and closed texture. Good for the
cheeseboard and good served with bread, celery, apples or other fruit.

10. Wensleydale -
Is a mild white cheese. It is closed textures but crumbly, and has a slightly salty flavour. It
goes well with fruit especially apples.

11. Sage Derby -
Is a closed textured Derby cheese, flavoured with chopped sage leaves which give a
characteristic green marbled effect.

12. Blue Stilton -
The 'King of Cheeses'. Its distinctive blue veining is the result of a mould which is introduced
into the cheese during manufacturing. Between the veining the cheese should be a rich
creamy colour, a dry white cheese is a sign of immaturity. A mature Stilton has a strong but
subtle flavour, best appreciated when eaten with biscuits. Port is the traditional

13. White Stilton -
Is a very white crumbly cheese, much milder than blue stilton, but with a slightly sour
flavour. A good substitute for Greek Feta cheese.

14. Windsor Red -
Is Cheddar flavoured and marbled with red wine. It has a crumbly texture and a flavour

similar to mild Cheddar.

French Cheese
1. Babybel -
Is a smooth full-fat soft cheese with a red wax coating. It has a mild slightly sweet flavour,
similar to Gouda. Good for the cheeseboard.

2. Bleu D’Auvergne -
Is a blue cheese made primarily from cow’s milk but including some goat’s and ewe’s milk. It
is a rich cheese with a sharp salty taste.

3. Bleu De Bresse -
Is a small, dark blue veined cheese made from unskimmed cows’ milk. It has a soft creamy
texture with a thin grey-white rind and a rich piquant flavour.

4. Boursin -
Is a soft cream cheese made from enriched cows' milk. It is available flavoured with garlic,
herbs or black pepper.

5. Brie -
Is one of the best known French cheese. It is made from cows' milk in large rounds about 35
cm in diameter and 2.5 cm thick. It has a white mould edible crust which encases a soft, pale
cheese with a delicate creamy flavour.Good for the cheeseboard.

6. Camembert -
Is made in creameries from the milk of the Normandy dairy herds. Prepared in small rounds
with creamy yellow outer crust.

7. Caprice Des Dieux -
Is a small oval loaf shaped cheese made with enriched cows' milk. It is similar in texture &
flavour to Brie but rather richer.

8. Chevre -
Is the generic name for goat's milk cheese. They are small and quite strong in flavour.

9. Coeurmandie -
Is a small heart-shaped creamy Camembert type cheese with a velvety white rind.

10. Fromage Du Manet -
Is a full fat, soft cheese flavoured with garlic & herb. Good for the cheeseboard.

11. Neufachatel -
Is a cows' milk cheese from Normandy. A soft, dark yellow cheese with a soft white coating
and a slightly salty flavour.

12. Petit Suisse -
Is a soft cream cheese made from whole milk enriched with extra cream. It is sold in small
cylindrical shape & unsalted with little sour flavour.

13. Port Salut -
Is a semi hard yellow cheese, which was first made by monks in the 13th century. It is
almost identical to St. Paulins.

14. Rambol Pepper -
Is a processed cheese spread made from Emmenthal cheese & cream. It is flavoured with
pepper & flamed with Cognac.

15. Roquefort -
Is a blue cheese made from Ewes' milk curds sprinkled with breadcrumbs and specially
treated with mould to give the characteristic blue-green veining.Good for the cheeseboard
& salad dressings too.

16. St. Julien -
Is a full fat processed cheese with a spreadably consistency. It is flavoured with parsley &
garlic,hazrinuts, walnuts or almonds.

17. St. Paulin -
Is a semi-hard medium fat cheese with a bright orange rind.

18. Tartare -
Is a light, soft cream cheese flavoured with garlic & herbs, similar to Boursin.

19. Tomme Au Raisin -
Is an uncooked pressed cheese which dosenot mature with keeping. This smooth, slightly
chewy cheese is coated with a mixture of dried black grape skins and pips, which add

interest to its mild flavour.

Italian Cheese
1. Bel Paese -
Popular cheese with a firm white textureand a thin dark yellow rind. It has a mild, delicate,
slightly salty flavour. Good in cooking.

2. Dolcelatte -
Is a milder, creamier version of the Gorgonzolla. It is off white in colour with blue green veins
running through it. Good for the cheeseboard.

3. Gorgonzolla -
Is one the most famous cheese throughout the world. It is named after the village of
Gorgonzolla near Milan, where it was originally made in caves over a 1000 years ago. It is
soft textured & straw coloured, with a characteristic blue-green veining. It has a rich, sharp,
sometimes slightly spiced flavour.

4. Mozzarella -
Is traditionally used for Pizza toppings. It is a pale, smooth, closed textured cheese with a
mild flavour.

5. Parmesan -
Is the most famous Italian hard cheese. Made from skimmed cows' milk, it takes at least 2
years to mature & acquire its strong flavour. It is an excellent cooking cheese & is used

grated on many Italian dishes.

Swiss, German & Austrian Cheese

1. Emmental -
Was originally a Swiss cheese but now also produced in Denmark & Germany. It is a dull
yellow sweet cheese with holes evenly distributed.

2. Gruyere -
Is a hard Swiss cheese with a full fruity flavour.

3. Swiss Petit Gruyere -
Is processed Gruyere cheese sold in boxed foil wrapped triangles.

4. Bavarian Blue -
It is a creamy, rich, full fat soft cheese with blue veining and a white mould surface.

5. Bavarian Soft -
Is a full fat, soft cream cheese, sometimes flavoured with horseradish.

6. Bavarian Smoked -
Is a cream coloured processed cheese, smoked for added flavour.

7. Cambozola -
Is also known as German Blue Brie, is a full fat soft cheese with an edible mould crust,

manufactured in a similar way to French Brie.

Dutch & Scandinavian Cheese

1. Edam -
Although named after the town of Edam in Holland, this cheese now has a trading in
Alkmaar. It is a pale yellow ball shaped cheese, weighing about 2kgs. with a characteristic
red wax rind.

2. Gouda -
Is another famous Dutch cheese made from whole cows' milk. It has a creamier and
stronger flavour than Edam.

3. Danish Blue -
Also known as Daniblu, is a milk white cheese with a close pattern of blue green veins. It has
a rich creamy consistency and a strong tangy flavour.

4. Havarti -
Is a Danish cheese made in rectaangular loaf shape or flat rounds. Pale yellow in colour with
small irregularly distributed holes.

5. Jutland Blue-
Is a Danish cheese with a high fat content and blue veins. It is more mature & therefore
stronger than Danish blue cheese. Best reserved for eating.

6. Orange Roll -
Is a Danish blue cream cheese, made from cream which has undergone various heat
treatments. It is flavoured with Grand Marnier and Orange, and coated with chopped

7. Svenbo -
Is a fairly new hard Danish cheese. It is made in flat rounds or rectangular blocks and has a
dry yellow rind which may be coated with paraffin

8. Jarlsberg -
Is a hard cheese, revived in Norway this century. It is creamy yellow with large holes and a

soft smooth texture.

Monday, 26 June 2017


Botanically speaking, a fruit is the ovary or seed bearing part of any growing plant. Many
varieties of fruit are edible and are eaten all over the world, either raw or cooked in any number of
ways. Many of the soft fruits such as strawberries, traditionally associated with the warmer months
of the year, can now also be bought in the winter months, thanks to improved methods of growing
and transportation.

Nutritionally fruit is very important as it is a rich source of fibre (especially if the skin is eaten),
and energy in the form of natural fruit sugar (Fructose). Many fruits also contain vitamins and
minerals. It is a popular snack food as many varieties can conveniently be eaten with no preparation
at all and nearly all fruit is comparatively low in calories.


Most fruits should be bought when ripe and eaten as soon as possible, but such as, bananas
can be bought when unripe and safely left to ripen for a few days at home. Hard fruits, such as apples
and pears will not ripen after picking and should be bought ready to eat. Soft fruits, such as
raspberries, strawberries & red currants have very poor keeping qualities & should be eaten soon
after buying. Peaches, nectarines & other stone fruits should be firm but ripe when bought and will
not ripen further.

Choose fruit that looks & smells fresh & ripe with no bruises or damaged skin. Stone fruit
should yield only slightly when gently squeezed. Berries & other soft fruits should be plump & dry;
check that punnets are not stained with juice & that the underneath fruit is not squashed.
Many fruits will keep well at room temperature & it is common to see a fruit bowl in the kitchen
or living room containing a ready supply of apples, pears, bananas & citrus fruits. Bananas will
quickly become over ripe if left for too long & the skins of citrus fruits will become dry & wrinkled after a few days, although the fruit will remain edible for upto 2 weeks. Fruit stored in the refrigerator will keep for a longer period but may loose flavor.

Fruits can be divided into three main groups:

1. Fleshy fruits with a high water content upto 90% include citrus fruit, pears, pineapples,
apples, peaches, mangoes & strawberries; some are rich in vitamin C (Especially citrus fruits)
and minerals; their calorific value depends on their sugar content.
2. Fleshy fruits with high sugar content – include dates and dried fruits; they are a good energy
source, containing 200 – 300 Calorie per 100 gms.
3. Dry fruits with a high fat content and low water content – include walnuts, hazelnuts, almonds
etc., these are rich in calcium and B vitamins, contain around 650 Calorie per 100 gms. and

are usually considered in a separate category.


Fruit can be served at any meal, and may be included in any course. Simple starters include
fruit cocktail and Parma ham served with fresh figs or slices of melon, meat, poultry and game are
often served with a fruit accompaniment, such as pork with apple, gammon with pineapple and
turkey with cranberries, lemon wedges are served with any number of fish and meat dishes as well
as with many desserts, countless desserts such as mousses, souffl├ęs, fools, trifles, ice-creams,
sorbets, tarts, cheesecakes and pavlovas are made with fruit, grapes are often served with the
cheeseboard at the end of a meal.

Basic method of cooking fruit includes stewing or poaching and baking. It can also be used in
countless other ways, either singly or in a combination, to make any number of desserts, from the
simplest fruit salad or compote, to the most elaborate gateaux and pastries. Fruit is also used to
make preserves, such as jams, jellies, marmalades and fruit butters and cheeses. It is also a main

ingredient in many drinks and frequently forms part of a garnish or decoration.

1. Tropical - Most tropical fruits are treated alike, being ideal candidates for salads,
whether of fruit or combined with shellfish, fish or poultry. Often special techniques are
needed for peeling and extracting the flesh of tropical fruits. However, all puree well for sauce
and make a rich base for sorbets and ice creams. When they are green and unripe, mango and
papaya may even be cooked like a vegetable. Example includes Yellow Passion Fruit, Purple
Passion Fruit, Guava, Papaya, Pineapple, Kiwi Fruit, Mango etc.

2. Stone - It is those kinds of fruit which have soft flesh and single hard seed inside.
It can be any category of fruit. Example includes Cherry, Apricot, Plum, Walnut, and Avocado

3. Berry - It is those kinds of fruit which can grow in any region. Plant category is
basically shrub type and fruit forms a hanging strings. It might contain a single seed or a
multiple one. Example includes Blackcurrant, Redcurrant, Blackberry, Pomegranate, Grapes,
and Gooseberry etc. Melons are also considered as a berry variety although in some cases we
had different opinion about it. There are two kinds of melon – the dessert melon and the
watermelon. Dessert melons have tan, green or yellow rind and dense, fragrant flesh.
Depending on their variety, the skin is either netted (covered with brown, fibrous net-like
markings) or furrowed. The watermelon has thick, dark green skin flecked with yellow, which
surrounds red, pink or yellow watery flesh. There are several varieties of melons available out
of what some most familiar varieties are Charentais, Cantaloupe, Honeydew, Canary, Galia,
Watermelon etc.

4. Pommes - In the days when fruit was a luxury, pommes fruits were the only fruits
that could be stored for more than a week or two, which meant that they were available for
more than half the year. Today there are numerous pommes fruit varieties, some developed
by accident and others by careful crossbreeding, and many dating back to the 18th or 19th
century. However, of these, barely a hundred are exploited commercially and far fewer are
grown as a common crop. Example includes Apple, Pears, Anjou, Quince etc.

5. Citrus - Members of the large citrus group include the lemon, lime, orange,
tangerine and grapefruit as well as more exotic fruits such as the ugli fruit, shaddock, citron
and kumquat and hybrids such as the Clementine, tangelo, ortanique and limequat. With
their aromatic acidity, citrus fruits are used in soups, savoury stews and salads and often from
the main flavour in desserts such as souffl├ęs and mousses. Invaluable as decoration, their
vivid colours complement almost all foods. Citrus fruits are covered in a thick rind, mainly
white pith properly called ALBEDO, which has a thin colourful outer layer of zest or rind, where
citrus oil and most of the vitamins are concentrated

Sunday, 25 June 2017


When purchasing food it is necessary to consider what the true cost of the item will be in relation to what the printed price list from the supplier states it to be. The true cost calculation has to take into account the invoice price less any discounts claimable; storage cost of the item (this is particularly relevant when purchasing large quantities at a special price and includes the problem of a further security risk); and the production costs. The calculation of a true cost may well indicate that it is cheaper to buy in five-case lots as against a fifty-case lot at a lower price, or that the production costs involved with an item make it too expensive to buy it in that state, and that it may be cheaper in the
long run to buy the item already processed by a manufacturer.

There are 7 main buying methods that may be used for purchasing foods. The particular method chosen often depends on the location of the establishment, the type and size of the business, its purchasing powder and the type of food being purchased.
It is important for buyers to have accurate figures available of the consumption/usage of major items so that they may decide which method of purchasing to use and also as essential data for negotiation of the purchasing price.

Purchasing by contract:-

There are 2 common types of contract used:-

1. The specific period contract which aims at determining the source of supply and the price of goods for a stated period often of 3 or 6 months. This reduces the time and labor of negotiating and ordering to a minimum, plus it has the added advantage of assisting with budgeting and pricing, when the prices of items are fixed for a period of time. Items with a fairly stable price, such as milk, cream, bread etc., can be contracted in this way.

2. The quantity contract which aims at ensuring continuity of supply of a given quantity of an essential item at an agreed price over a particular trading period. The purchase of frozen fruit and vegetables for use in a banqueting or a summer season are typical examples when the supply could be affected by the weather conditions with subsequent price fluctuations and where a quantity contract is advisable used.

A point to be noted here is that a contract is a legal document and that the conditions of the contract should be prepared by the firm’s solicitors to safeguard against possible areas of dispute or, alternatively, prepared using the guidelines as laid out by one of the professional bodies.
The contract is in 2 parts: the general conditions; and the particular requirements or specifications.
The general conditions would include clauses such as the period of the contract, where deliveries are to be made, where invoice are to be sent, the method of payment, samples of commodities, etc. The specific conditions would normally be given as detailed specifications for particular items as explained.

Purchasing by daily market list:-

This method is used when purchasing perishable foods on a daily basis and when it is possible to have two or more approved suppliers.
A senior member of the kitchen staff who would take a quick stock take of the foods left after each lunch service, pass the information to the head Chef who would complete the ‘daily market list’by entering the quantities of all items he/she requires to be purchased for the next day’s business in the ‘wanted’ column. The list would then be processed by a member of staff in the purchasing office.
Each approved supplier would be telephoned and asked to quote a price for each of items required. The price quoted would be based on the quality of the item required, the quantity required and the esteem placed by the supplier to supply a particular establishment. The prices quoted would be entered on to the ‘daily market list’ and then a decision made by the purchasing manager as to where to place the order for each item. This may result in two or three suppliers each receiving part of the total order.

Purchasing by weekly / fortnightly quotation list:-

This method is used to purchase grocery items where a delivery of once a week or fortnight is adequate. The method is similar to that described when purchasing perishable foods by daily market.
The head storekeeper would complete the stock in hand column on the master list and also fill in the wanted column for each item, based on the normal order quantity and the volume of the business expected. Meanwhile the purchasing office would send out to each grocery suppliers a copy of the list on which suppliers should quote their prices. On receipt of quotations these would be entered on to a master quotation list and a decision then made about where the orders for each item are to be placed. This would be based on the requirements in the next week/fortnight, the prices quoted and the storage space available which may allow for special offers for large quantities purchased to be considered. It should be noted here that the specifications for items will usually be just by brand name of the
product together with the size, weight and count. This is because the buying power of most catering companies is not large enough to interest foods to their specific requirements.
Purchasing by ‘cash and carry’:-

This method is of particular interest to the medium and small establishments whose orders are often not large enough to be able to get regular deliveries from wholesalers and food manufacturers. ‘Cash and carry’ food warehouses are situated in all towns and resemble in layout and operation that of very large food supermarkets. The main difference is that the ‘cash and carry’food warehouses is only available to traders.

The particular advantages of buying by ‘cash and carry’are:

1. The warehouses are situated near to most catering establishments and their hours of business are usually longer than those of most food wholesalers.
2. Small or large quantities may be purchased at competitive prices.
3. Customers are able to see what they are buying, as against buying just from a price list or catalogue. They may also see special displays of a particular food company’s products and be able to taste them.
4. Customers may use the warehouse as often as they like and in doing so keep the level of stocks held low. Also, when there is a sudden increase in their business it is easy for caterers to replace their stock.

There are two disadvantages of buying by ‘cash and carry’:

1. Caterers have to provide their own staff and transport to collect the items from the warehouse.
2. Caterers have to pay cash for the items they purchase.
Purchasing by paid reserve:-
This method is used when it is necessary to ensure the continuity of supply of an item for the menu which is of particular importance to a restaurant. Caterers are buying in advance a large quantity of a commodity to cover the needs for several months ahead, and requisitioning their weekly requirements from suppliers, who would hold the stock. Examples of products which are purchased by this method are frozen jumbo size pacific prawns.

Total supply:-

This method is relatively new. It is a method offered only by a few major suppliers who are able to offer a full supply service of all commodities to caterers. This has the advantages of only having to negotiate with one supplier; a reduced volume of paperwork; and far fewer deliveries. The main disadvantages is that of being tied to one major supplier, whose prices may not be as competitive as when using several suppliers and whose range of certain commodities may be limited.

Cost plus:-

This is a method used frequently in the welfare sector of the industry. The establishment agrees to pay an approved supplier exactly the same price that the supplier paid for the commodities plus an agreed percentage, often 10-12.5%. This percentage would include the cost of handling, delivery charges, and a profit element for the supplier.

Purchase specifications for food

Purchase specifications should be used when ever possible in purchasing, in particular when purchasing by the first three methods discussed. A purchase specification is a concise description of the quality, size and weight required for a particular item. Each specification would be particular to an establishment and would have been determined by members of the management team (for example, the purchasing manager, head Chef and the food and beverage manager) by reference to the catering policy, the menu requirements and its price range. Copies of the specifications should be
kept by the relevant members of the management, the goods received clerk and the food control clerks and sent to all suppliers on the ‘approved suppliers list’.

The reasons for preparing specifications are:

1. It establishes a buying standard of a commodity for an establishment so that a standard product is available for the kitchen and restaurant to prepare for the customer.
2. It informs the supplier in writing (and often aided by a line drawing or photograph) precisely what is required, and it assists the supplier in being competitive with pricing.
3. It provides detailed information to the goods received clerk and the store man as to the standard of the foods to accept.
4. It makes staff aware of the differences that can occur in produce, for example, size, weight, quality, quantity etc. Specifications are easy to write when there is an official recognized grading scheme for the particular commodity. It is necessary, however, to know and understand any grading system fully to be able to obtain the maximum benefit.

When writing specifications it is convenient to write them in a standard from giving the following information:

1. Definition of the item. Care must be exercised here that the common catering term used by the buyer means
exactly the same thing to the supplier.
2. Grade or brand name, for example apples grade extra class; Lea and Perrins ‘Worcestershire Sauce’.
3. Weight, size or count, for example pounds, hundred weights, kilos, etc.; A21/ s, A10s, etc.; Lemons 120s, 2
pineapples 12s etc.
4. Unit against which prices should be quoted, for example per pound, per case etc.
5. Special notes for the commodity, for example for meat it could contain details of the preparation of a particular cut of meat or details of special packaging requirements.

What is important, is that the layout chosen should be one that minimizes the distance walked by the storekeeper. When this is determined the stock taking list should be printed in the same order in which items appear in the stores so as to enable stock-taking to be done quickly and efficiently.

Issuing of food

This should take place at set times during the day and only against a requisition note signed by an authorized person, for example head Chef or restaurant manager. When the requisition is a large one it should be handed in several hours before the items are required to allow the store keeper plenty of time to collect all the food items together. The pricing of issues is usually at the ‘as purchased price’, ignoring any small discounts. This is made easy in the case of non-perishable foods by marking the current price on all items when they first come into the store. The pricing of perishable items is often done by the control office after they have been issued as they have access to the suppliers’

Stocktaking of food

The main objectives of taking stock are

1. To determine the value of goods held in stock. This will indicate if too much or too little food is held in stock and if the total value of stock held is in accordance with the financial policy of the establishment. The total value of food held in stock is also required for the profit and loss accounts and the balance sheet, by the organization’s accounts
2. To compare the value of goods actually in the stores at a particular time with the book value of the stock which will have been calculated with the simple formulae of:

Value of Opening Stock + Purchases during the period - Requisitions made in the same period = Value of closing stock.

This will highlight any differences and indicate the efficiency of the storekeeper and of the system used to obtain goods when the storekeeper is off duty.
3. To list slow moving items. This will bring to the attention of the purchasing officer, the head Chef, etc., those items which are in stock and for which there has been no demand, since the last stock take. Usually these items will then be put on to a menu to sell them before they deteriorate, or returned to the wholesaler and credit obtained.
4. To compare the usage of food with food sales to calculate the food percentage and gross profit.
5. As a deterrent against loss and pilferage.
6. To determine the rate of stock turnover for different groups of foods. This is calculated by the formula:

                          Cost of food consumed
             ________________________________ =Rate of stock turnover in a given period
                  Average value of stock at cost price 

   For example, in a 28 day trading period the cost of food consume was Rs.3,000. The opening stock on day 1 was
Rs.800 and the closing stock on day 28 was Rs.700.                             

                                                                  3000                              3000
              Rate of stock turnover =   --------------------------   =    ----------------   =4.0
                                                               800+700                           750     

This means that in the 28 day trading period the total value of stock turned over four times and that an average of one week’s stock was held during the period.

The rate of stock turnover will vary depending on the frequency of delivery, the commodity, the size of storage space available and the amount of money the establishment is prepared to tie up in food stocks. Typical stock turnover figures for a month are at least twenty for perishable items and four for non perishable items. Stocktaking lists should be printed in a standard format and in some way related to the layout of the storeroom. This is so that stocktaking can be done methodically moving around the storeroom so that nothing is missed out; also, so that it aids the checking of figure-work by facilitating the comparing of like pages with like pages from previous stock takes to ensure that there is normally a near standard stock of items between periods.Stocktaking will typically be done every trading period, by staff such as the storekeeper and head cellar man, under the supervision of a member from the food and beverage management or control staff. Ideally, the stocktaking should take place at the end of a trading period and before the operational start of the next trading period. This
usually means that the stocktaking will take place late in the evening or early in the morning. The end-of-year stock take is uasually done in greater detail and with some more thoroughness than for a trading period and will involve more staff, usually including the head of the control department to oversee and manage it. Professional stocktakers will often be used particularly for the end-of-year stocktake.

Saturday, 24 June 2017


Hospital catering comes within that section of the catering industry classified as Welfare catering.
Hospital catering employs 5.8% people as against a total labor force in the hotel and restaurant industry. Apart from the School meals service, Hospital catering is one of the largest catering organizations within Welfare catering. Approximately 50% of staffs are employed in the hospital service and of these about 74% are full time catering staff. This employment of catering staff produce and serve meals to patient involving in the region of mid-day meals and the equivalent number of breakfasts, teas and evening meals.
The total number of full-time catering staff may be broken down as follows:
2.5% Catering officers & assistants.
0.5% Housekeeper caterers.
1% Dietitians.
1% Kitchen superintendents & assistants.
6% Head cooks & assistants.
26% Cooks of other grades.
31% Other kitchen staff.
2% Dining room supervisor.
29% Other dining room staff.
1% Clerical staff.

The development of the hospital catering service goes back to the National Health Act of 1947.
Before this time all hospitals were dependent on income from patients fees, private donations, proceeds from garden parties and so on. Due to this the service of food varied considerably from one hospital to another, and went generally from bad to worse. Very little consideration was being given to an attractively served meal; the correct nutritional value; a wide variety of food; or all food being served freshly cooked and piping hot. The long term effect of the 1947 Act was that gradually considerable change took place. ‘Regional’ Boards were organized who were directly responsible to the Ministry of Health. The responsibility of the catering services were transferred from the matron to the hospital catering officer. A wage scale for hospital catering staff was introduced into the Council, wages proposals for nursing and ancillary professions. Hospital catering staff generally work on a straight shift system and have to provide a 24 hour service. The training of hospital catering staff was carried out at the School of Hospital Catering. Because of initial bad planning before 1947 and the slow growth and development of the hospital catering service the major food service problems were for all meals to reach the patient quickly, to look attractive and to have the correct nutritional value. To this end the ‘Ganymede’system was introduced.

The Patient
When in hospital likes and dislikes become more important to the patient and this is an important
factor that the catering officer must not overlook. Patients may be said to fall into six categories:

1. Medical. Who are usually in hospital for a long time. As recovery here may often be long
and tedious, the patient is often inclined to lose his appetite and interest in food.
Therefore he must be tempted to eat by serving nourishing and appetizing food.

2. Surgical. Only stay in hospital for a short time and invariably they begin to improve 3 to 4
days after their operation. These patients need good nourishment with a high protein diet and this will involve the service of special diets.

3. Geriatrics. Many old people require hospital treatment and have special needs. Therefore
generally speaking they should be provided with soft and easy to eat foods such as stews, roasts, minced meats, etc. They should receive plenty of protein and vitamin C, the latter normally in the form of stewed fruits. It is very necessary for these meals to be attractively served up.

4. Orthopaedics. These patients are not normally physical ill but may often be unable to
move without help. These patients need a good varied diet with good helpings, attractively served.

5. Maternity. Patients need good nourishing food often to include extra milk, eggs, butter,
fresh fruit and vegetables.

6. Pediatrics. Is the hospitalization of children. As children nowadays commence to eat adult
food either there is little problem in catering for children. The only slight difference being that an early supper or high tea of a rather light nature is often served to children. A varied diet containing a good percentage of protein is essential.

The timing of patients mealtimes generally follows the same pattern.

Breakfast - 7.30 - 8.00 a.m.

Lunch - 12.00 noon

Tea - 3.00 - 3.30 p.m.

Supper - 6.00 - 6.30 p.m.

Later hot drink - Anytime between 8.00 - 10.00 p.m.

These times are normally followed as they will not coincide with nurses and doctors meal-times or
visiting times. In some hospitals ward waitresses are being introduced in order that meals may be served at a more realistic time. An average of Rs. 140/- per week per head is allowed for food costs in hospitals.
The Ganymede System
The Ganymede System is a method of food service used in hospital catering. It was originally
American but the patent has now been bought by a British firm. This system is installed in a number of hospitals in this country and also in hospitals in various countries in Europe and as far as South Africa and Asia. This system is too costly and this is one of the disadvantages - the high cost of conversion of existing premises. When all the dishes listed on the menu are prepared and cooked, the Ganymede Dri-Heat system takes over. Production is 8 / 10 meals set up per minute, and each meal my be different in its make up according to the patients choice. One initial problem caused by this system was staff, since a large number of staff is required around the conveyor belt for setting up the meals. This is generally overcome by using house-porters, and making use of a number of house-maids from various wards, for a period of 30 minutes over the luncheon and dinner service period.
The equipment required is all based around a conveyor belt and consists mainly of heated and
cold plate dispensers; machine which holds the pellets; dispenser for the bases; electric portable bainmarie for holding various dishes of vegetables, etc.; tray dispenser; quick fry tops and hot-plates near by for excess equipment in case it is required.

The advantages of this system are that the patient receives his meal presented appetizingly on the
plate and piping hot. Labor and administration costs can be reduced to some extent. Time originally spent by the house-maids in the ward’ plating up’meals can now be put to better use by completing other duties.

The patient is able to select the meal he requires from a given menu. It has been estimated that there is a saving of four hours per day in the wards because of the easier and speeded up means of service to the patient, and as little or no washing up is done in each ward but in a central wash-up area.
The menu, with a choice, is given to each patients at 8 a.m., And he then marks off his
requirements for lunch, dinner and break fast the following day by putting ‘X’ in the appropriate box.
These menus are then collected by the ward sister who sends them down to the catering manager. He, by means of an automatic machine, is informed of the number of portions of each dish required, and then this information is passed on to the kitchen by 9 a.m. At service time, depending on the type of dish, extra portions are available in case required. The patient may also mark on the card if he requires a large or small portion. By this system of dry heat service a meal will keep in perfect condition for up to 45 minutes.

Therefore if for some reason a patient is not available when meals are brought to the ward, but comes in 30 minutes later, his meal is still satisfactory. The private patient’s choice of menu is larger and more varied than the main wards, and here the menus are often printed in part French and part English. The evening meal for private patients is termed ‘Dinner’but for other word ‘Supper’.
To commence the service of the meal a supervisor stands at the end of the conveyor belt and
checks each meal before it is placed in an unheated trolley to go to the wards. The meal required, with the help of a pellet (metal alloy disc), will remain at the correct temperature for approximately 45 minutes. The pellet, 1/4kg (1/2lb) in weight, is placed in the base and the plate on top, allowing the air to circulate, which in turn circulates the heat from the pellet. Before use the bases are heated to 1040C (2500F), the pellet to 1520C (4000F), and the plate to 1040C (2500F).

One member of staff stands at each of the service points along the conveyor belt and deals with a
certain item of food as listed on the menu. As each tray progresses along the belt with the patients chosen menu upon it, the appropriate members of staff place the necessary portions of food on to the plate. A suggested order of items on the tray is - cutlery in a serviette and a menu; main dish; sauce; vegetables; potatoes; sweet; sauce and soup. Beverages are made and dispensed from the ward kitchens.

The china plates in use are specially made to absorb the required heat without cracking. Bowls
used for soups and hot sweets are plastic and have a vacuum in the bottom which helps the soup or
sweet to retain its heat for the required period of time. Care must be taken when using this equipment as the bowls, being specially made. Bakelite trays are used as they are light and easily cleaned. All cutlery used is generally stainless steel.

For nutritional purposes as much food as possible is fresh. To some extent however this form of
service lends itself to the use of pre-portioned wrapped foods e.g. for butters, preserves, sugars,
marmalade, salt and peppers and creams. This again is more hygienic, cuts out wastage, and helps to
reduce costs and storage problems to a minimum.

A system similar to the Ganymede System has been introduced in some hospitals.

The Helitherm Tray Service
This is a Swedish system working on similar principals to the Ganymede using a selective menu,
tray service, and run on an assembly line. By this method the food is kept hot by specially insulated trays. This system is expensive to install and very often difficult in existing premises. One of the main advantages of the system is its flexibility, in that there are no heated pellets or special ovens required so that the trays may be used in smaller units. Perhaps the one disadvantage of the Helitherm tray service is that the menu does not travel directly towards the server as in the Ganymede system and therefore some difficulties may arise in the server reading the menu. Both system will complete approximately 8 to 10 trays per minute.

The cold dishes will be served from one side and hot foods from the other sides of the assembly
line. The bain-maries are placed against the conveyor belt which means the operator fills the plate by
means of a forward movement as against a sideway movement employed in the Ganymede system. This now means that if there is a shortage of staff in the Helitherm tray service system one server may possibly be able to serve from more than one section.

At the beginning of the belt one operator puts the menu in its holder and the hot plate on the tray. As
the tray passes down the moving belt the servers place the required portions of food on to the plate. At the end of the belt the tray is checked and lids put in place. The trays are then put into trolleys and sent to the various wards.

Hospitals have also experimented with Smethursts Ltd. ‘Top Tray System’ which was introduce to
the catering industry in 1963 / 1964. The ‘Top Tray System’ consists of complete deep frozen meals
prepared in central kitchens and reheated in radiant heat ovens at the service points. The main
disadvantages at the fairly high cost per meal and the fact that there are limits to the variety of food which may be prepared in this way. One main advantage is that the food may be prepared in ‘Off Peak’ hours and then brought into use as and when required. Labor costs can be reduced, and the labor force can be deployed to other necessary duties without the usual pressures of a service period.
Microwave ovens are already making an appearance in hospitals to provide quick reheating
facilities for food at certain periods of the day and night, when if labor were employed the wages bill would be sky high. All forms of dishes required can be prepared the day before in ‘Off Peak’ hours in a central kitchen and blast frozen. When required the following day the dishes are ready for service only one minute after going into an oven at full heat. The skill and craftsmanship of the food preparation staff are still required in the preparation of each dish, which can be done and completed when not under pressure.

The final reconstitution can be carried out by unskilled staff in a matter of seconds.
Automatic vending is another aspect of food and beverage service which is creeping into the
hospital catering service. Because of the necessity of a 24 hour service in the hospital to patients,
surgeons, doctors, and the nursing staffs, the introduction of automatic vending machines for beverages, both hot and cold, and hot and cold snacks cuts labor costs and ensures a constant and reliable service.

In this way staff are able to get a drink or snack as and when they wish. The vending machines must be replenished and cleaned daily and have regular maintenance. For maximum sales they must be sited correctly. Whether the time will come when complete meals will be dispensed from an automatic vending machine in a hospital remains to be seen.

It can be seen that the new system are devised to boost the morale of the patient by continually
presenting him with well cooked food, attractively plated-up and piping hot. At the same time over the period of a week or a fortnight the patient has a wide and varied selection of dishes from which to choose.

Friday, 23 June 2017


This name generally refers to a group of aromatic plants grown specifically for use in cooking,
though many are also attributed with medicinal properties. Along with spices, herbs have been used
with food since time immemorial. Originally, one of their purposes was to disguise the flavor of
perishable foods which were past their best, or even starting to rot. Today they are appreciated for the
distinctive tastes they add to heighten or improve the flavor of meat, fish and vegetable dishes.

ANGELLICA - A tall plant of the parsley family, it is chiefly cultivated on the
continent, specially in France and was at one time very popular because of its pleasant
musk like scent.

BASIL(Sweet Basil) - A herb with a distinctive, pungent taste and aromatic
scent that is generally used with tomatoes and in Italian cooking. It is good in salads, with lamb,
grilled meats and with green vegetables.

BAY (Sweet Bay, Sweet Laurel) - Aherb with a strong, spicy
flavor which can be used fresh or dried. It is one of the major ingredient for Bouquet Garni.


CAMOMILE (Chamomile) - There are many varieties of this daisy - like plant which grows wild over much of Europe and in America. It has aromatic scent and bitter flavor.                

CELERY - A vegetable of carrot family widely grown in
temperate regions. There are two main varieties of celery - the
self blanching variety available from July to October, and the
main-crop non-self blanching which is available from October
through to the following year.


CATMINT (Catnip) - Best known as a garden loved by cats, this plant has
strongly aromatic leaves that can be used as a herb, though it is less popular nowadays. Good for making herbal tea.

CELERIAC (Celery Root, Knob Celery) - Also sometimes
known as turnip rooted celery, celeriac is a large knobbly swollen
root with a pronounced celery flavor.

CHERVIL - This green leafy herb has a sweet, delicate flavor with a hint
of aniseed. It looks a little like coriander. It grows mostly in France. It blends well
with egg, cheese and chicken dishes.


CHIVE - This common herb is a member of the onion family and
can be grown easily in most parts of the world. It produces purple
flowers and has long, narrow tubular green stems which can be used
raw to flavor salads and dressings and as a garnish.

CLARY- A herb from the same family as sage, and grown in southern Europe.It has tall pink, white and mauve flowering spikes with a bitter flavor.

COMFREY - Amember of the borage family, comfrey is now
one of the less common herbs. It’s leaves and flowers can be used
fresh in salads.

CORIANDER (Chinese Parsley, Cilantro) - A herb plant grow both for its
leaves and seeds. Native to southern Europe, coriander is used in Chinese,
Japanese, Indian, Middle Eastern and Mexican cooking. It have a mild sweet or
orange flavor.

COSTMARY (Alecost) - Once used in beer making, it is now a rare herb that is mostly available in dry form.

CUBEB - A kind of pepper, native to Indonesia. They have a pungent spicy
flavor like camphor and are used in eastern cookery and also in some medicines.

DILL - The feathery leaves of this European plant are used
As a herb and dried seeds as spices. Good in salads, garnish, egg but
classically with Salmon.

EPAZOTE:- (Mexican Tea, Wormseed) - A strong flavored herb that grows
in America and some parts of Europe. It is most used in Mexican cooking but can
also be used for making tea.

FENNEL - There are two types of fennel plant, both of
which are common in Mediterranean countries. The feathery
leaves of one type are used as a herb, while the bulbous root of the
other type is eaten as a vegetable.
a) Herb or Sweet Fennel has a slightly aniseed flavor. It is a classical flavoring for fish.
b) Florence Fennel or Fennel Root, is a white bulbous vegetable topped with green feathery leaves.

FINES HERBES - A classical French herb mixture, traditionally consisting of finely chopped fresh chives, chervil, parsley and tarragon.

GARLIC - Although often used like a herb or spice, garlic in
fact belongs to a group of plants known as alliums. Also included in
this group are onions, chives and leeks. It has been mentioned in medical
and herbal literature for well over 700 years as a vital food, if taken
regularly and in small doses, to improve and maintain good general
health. It is also recognized as an aid to digestion.


LEEK - A vegetable belonging to the same family as onion and garlic. Its
flavor is mild but distinctive. The lower part of the stem is earthed up so that it
remains white.

LEMON BALM (Balm) - This herb is a member of the
mint family with green, heart shaped leaves. It has a lemony scent and
taste and is good with fish, poultry and ham dishes. Also good for herbal tea.


LOVAGE - A herb with sharp peppery flavor. Good in salads and in
cold roast beef. It is also used to make a alcoholic cordial.

MARJORAM - This small leaved herb has a spicy, slightly bitter, nutmeg
like flavor and can be used to replace basil if not available. There are
Many varieties but the most common being the savory pot and the sweet
Marjoram. Wild marjoram is also known as oregano. Good in stuffing, roasts, soups, pizza toppings etc.

MELLIOT (Sweet Clove) - A rare & delicate herb plant that is a
member of the clove family. Good in stuffings & to flavor home made wine.
The most common variety of melliot has yellow flowers, a blue flowering
variety that originated in Turkey is an essential ingredient of an unususal
Swiss Green cheese called Sapsago or Schabzeiger.

MYRTLE - Although not much used in cooking, it is a very fragrant
herb that goes particularly well with lamb.

OREGANO (Wild Marjoram) - This herb is a member of marjoram
family and can be used instead of marjoram, though it is much more
aromatic and strongly flavored. Good in meat, sausages, soups and pizzas.

PARSLEY - A mild, pleasantly flavored herb with flat or curly leaves
which make an attractive garnish sprinkled on food. Most of the flavor of
parsley is in the stalks which are used as a classic ingredient in bouquet garni
and fines herbes.


PENNY ROYAL - A small creeping plant related to the mint
family. It is strongly scented and for many centuries was used to repel
insects. It is popularly known as pudding grass as it is a traditional flavoring
in black pudding.

PURSLANE (Pigweed, Portulaca) - An unusual annual herb grown and
used as a salad leaf or for cooking as a vegetable.

ROSEMARY - A strong, pungent herbs with spikey leaves. The flavor
of rosemary overpowers other herbs. Good in meat, fish, poultry and some
sweet dishes.

RUE - A hardy evergreen shrub with blue grey foliage and a pungent
aromatic smell. It has long been cultivated for its medicinal and culinary

SAGE - A large leaved herb with a strong, slightly bitter taste. Good
in stuffings, casseroles, salads, meat dishes (specially pork), egg and
cheese dishes.

SAVORY - A herb which comes in summer and winter varieties and
is best when fresh. It has peppery flavor which has a particular affinity with


SWEET CICELY - An aromatic herb with a sweet flavor
resembling aniseed. It can be used as salad dressings.

SWEET WOODRUFF - A white flowering woodland herb that grows wild
over much of Europe. It is not usually used for cooking but is an essential
flavoring in the young German wine served on 1st May and known as Maibowle.


TARRAGON - A herb with a distinctive, unusual flavor. There are two
main species, the French variety being better than the Russian. It is also
used to flavor vinegar, in marinades, with fish and chicken.

THYME - This small leaved herb comes in many varieties, of
which garden and lemon are the most common. It has a strong aromatic
flavor and is a constituent of bouquet garni.


VERBENA(Lemon Verbena) - A herb with a faint lemon flavor,
which used for making a herbal tea.

YARROW - This is a common perennial herb which grows in parts
of Europe. It has furrowed downy stems and clusters of small white
flowers. The plants healing properties were known to the ancient Greek
who named Yarrow Archillea after the Greek hero Archilles.


YERBAMATE - A South American shrub, the leaves of which are dried
and used to make a drink called Paraguay tea.